The first SSDs we had all used SLC or single level cell, holding 1 bit per cell. As SSDs grew more and more common and advanced, different tech like MLC (multi-level cell) and TLC (triple-level cell) grew more common, with 2 and 3 bits per cell respectively. While consumers have mostly used MLC and TLC due to cost reasons, some, especially in the enterprise have stuck with SLC due to performance or reliability concerns. From a recent study though, it looks like the second factor really isn’t all that different between SLC and MLC.
According to the researchers from the University of Toronto and Google, over a 6 year period, SLC and MLC drives failed at about the same rate. This meant that despite a significantly lower durability to writes for MLC, it was still able to keep up with SLC. The biggest reason for failures was due to the age of the SSD and not the number of writes. This is somewhat expected as many SSD durability experiments have shown, that controller, firmware, NAND defect or other failures are more likely to take place before the NAND actually dies from too many writes.
The study also found that Uncorrectable Bit Error Rate specifications weren’t useful at all while Raw Bit Error Rate was, though the manufacturers were too conservative with their estimates. The biggest concern is that 30-80 percent of SSDs develop at least one bad block and 2-7 percent develop at least one bad chip in the first four years of deployment. This means while SSDs are unlikely to lose all their data at once like HDD failure does, they do tend to lose snippets of data here and there.
All this being said and done, most SSDs should be able to recover data from bad blocks and have enough spare that it doesn’t matter too much. The study was also done with enterprise drives which are used more often and hit harder. One big takeaway is that unless you want speed MLC is the way to go. The biggest takeaway is that instead of worrying about writes to your SSD, worry more about its age and keep a good backup plan going.
Hardware.fr is part of LDLC, the largest seller of computer components in France and periodically releases statistics about customer returns. This allows us to gauge quite accurately each manufacturer’s RMA rate as a percentage and overall reliability. The RMA rates relate to models sold between October 1st, 2014 and April 1st, 2015, for returns created before October 2015. During the hardware survey, ASUS attained first position with a very impressive RMA rate of 1.89%. In comparison to the competition, Gigabyte reported returns of 2.05%, while ASRock managed 2.08% and finally, MSI finished with 2.55%.
Joe Hsieh, ASUS Corporate Vice President and General Manager, Motherboard and Desktop System Business Unit, said about the results:
“We are immensely proud of the latest Hardware.fr reliability report. The achievement is a result of our dedication to perfection and tireless efforts, leading to the development of advanced such as 5X Protection II,”
“We strive always to deliver the best motherboard defenses by combining the finest components, thoughtful circuit design, and exacting standards to guarantee quality and long-term durability all-round protection — resulting in exceptional motherboard reliability”
Interestingly, ASUS’ RMA rate dropped by 2.49% from the previous Hardware.fr report and showcases the improvements ASUS have made in the testing phase. Also, the motherboard section is extremely reliable and the lowest return rate in the industry. Although, the gap compared to other manufacturers isn’t massive. Nevertheless, it’s a great achievement and illustrates the durability of ASUS products.
People always thought about teleportation as a way of beaming beings or objects from one point in space and time to another. And the technology might even be achievable in the near future, according to professor Ronald Hanson from Delft University of Technology in Netherlands. But there might be a way to use the ‘teleportation’ method in other areas as well.
Hanson states that there is no law of physics preventing teleportation of large objects and humans alike. And that goes for teleporting information as well. In an experiment at the university, he was able to transport information encapsulated into subatomic particles between two targets situated three meters apart, having it be a success with 100% reliability.
During this experiment, four possible states are reported to have been transmitted. Each of the states related to a qubit, having it be the quantum equivalent of a digital bit. His next experiment now involves teleporting information between buildings in the university campus situated 1.3 km apart.
Though the technology is still in its early stages, it could revolutionise the way internet is delivered nowadays, having two notable major advantages. The first advantage is obviously incredibly high-speed connection and the second is network security, since information cannot be intercepted while travelling.
Thank you BGR for providing us with this information